Student Incivility, Intimidation, and Entitlement in Academia

By Barb Holdcroft

I recently finished a particularly disturbing semester of teaching that was filled with instances of student incivility, intimidation, and entitlement. In searching for information that could help me understand my students’ behavior, I found that other teachers have had similar experiences.

Several aspects of these behaviors can be quickly identified. All have a negative impact on education and can produce dire consequences in real life. As students repeat each behavior with “success,” the behaviors become more entrenched.

Let me start by clarifying some terms:

  • Incivility: According to Joy Peluchette, Katherine Karl, and Jerry Kopf in “Students Behaving Badly: Causes and Possible Strategies for Dealing with Classroom Incivility,” incivility includes disrespect for standards of classroom behavior as posted in the syllabus. Examples might be late arrival, sleeping, texting or other cell-phone use during class, or offensive language and comments.
  • Intimidation: Audrey Williams June, in her Chronicle of Higher Education article “When Students Become Class Bullies, Professors Are Among the Victims,” notes that intimidation includes student use of threatening language, bullying, physical posturing, and anger.
  • Bullying: Examples of bullying include student attempts to procure a grade change by embarrassing, attacking, or humiliating the teacher.
  • Entitlement: Students’ sense of entitlement is apparent in attempts to influence or reverse grades. When a student blames the instructor for a poor grade, the student’s perception of effort or ability is at odds with actual academic performance.

Examples of these behaviors abound. In her Chronicle article, June describes an incident in which a student insisted he be allowed to make up a missed quiz, despite rules in the syllabus clearly stating that make-up quizzes were not allowed. The student reacted by slamming his books on the desk and yelling at the instructor in anger. He would not leave the classroom until the instructor threatened to call security.

Egocentricity is also a problem. Mary McKinney, in her Inside Higher Ed article “Coping with ‘Oy Vey’ Students,” lists common student demands and complaints: “I have to miss class; tell me what you are covering.” “I was sick all last week; did you cover anything important?” “I have so many personal issues that I haven’t been able to study for your tests.” “I didn’t cheat!” “You’re not going to give me a zero, are you?” “Plagiarism? I didn’t even see the website!” In the 2010–11 academic year, my students complained that course material was too difficult and demanded that they be allowed to retake exams, that they be provided extra-credit opportunities to make up for poor test scores, and that all grades be curved.

Academic Entitlement

“Academic entitlement” is a pervasive term in recent literature on student behavior and can be applied to many of the situations described above. Research on academic entitlement has produced startling statistics. A 2008 study conducted by Ellen Greenberger and colleagues at the University of California, Irvine, found that

  • 66.2 percent of students believe that “trying hard” should result in a good grade;
  • 40.7 percent believe that completing most of the reading for a course should result in a B grade;
  • 23.5 percent believe that a professor should respond to an e-mail the same day it was sent; and
  • 16.5 percent believe that students should be allowed to take calls during class.

Given such results, it is not surprising students today are commonly known as “the entitlement generation.”

Bullying related to grades often targets younger faculty members and women and is mostly carried out by male students. This behavior results in intimidation, especially of female and adjunct faculty members seeking to uphold their values in the classroom; less productive teaching, because of time spent dealing with behavioral issues; faculty members being driven from college teaching, especially when they find they are not supported by administrators; rampant grade inflation that erodes the quality of our students’ learning and severely hampers their ability to deal with real life; student anxiety; the poor preparation of graduates for careers; and the reinforcement of bad behaviors as a way of life.  Perhaps the most serious are the last two points. Education professor Stuard Singer says, “Grades are meaningless if they are not a legitimate reflection of student learning.” Excellence—even competence—in any academic area is seriously jeopardized by bullying.

This situation, of course, raises ethical issues: those students whose work deserves higher grades are certain to be discouraged by the lack of fairness. Their work is devalued.

The concept of “institutionalized emphasis on self-esteem,” according to Generation Me author Jean Twenge, began in the 1970s and has had far-reaching effects on education. The perceived need to preserve self-esteem at the cost of true academic evaluation has become more and more prevalent throughout the years of my own teaching career, beginning in the elementary classroom. Teachers rarely fail students or hold them back out of concern that doing so would damage their self-esteem. Some institutions have even eliminated letter grades and percentage scores in favor of less “judgmental” grades like “S” and “U.”

“Feeling good about yourself is more important than good performance,” writes Twenge. Parents refuse to allow their children to fail at anything. According to the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Classroom Incivility project, the “helicopter parent” who intervenes in every aspect of the child’s life has become the norm. Parenting skills have evaporated as parents have become either indulgent or have ceased to act as parents at all. They have largely abandoned discipline out of fear of damaging the self-esteem of their children.

Origins of the Problem

How did this generation of students, and their parents, come about? Changing views on grading and parenting are contributing factors, but there are others as well, including consumerism. The concept of the student as a consumer, which has become increasingly widespread in higher education, leads students to believe that their schools owe them something, allows students to blame someone else for their failures, and reinforces what students have learned through shopping: that the customer is always right.

The results are not surprising. A study by researchers Philip Babcock and Mindy Marks reveals that students in 1961 averaged forty hours a week engaged in study. By 2003, however, the average hours of study had declined to twenty-seven hours per week. Richard Vedder, writing in the Chronicle of Higher Education, has argued that students don’t perceive a value in actually learning something when they can search for answers to questions of the Internet and receive information nearly instantly.

Today’s students could be called the “Quitter Generation.” They have never learned or valued perseverance because it has been absent from all of their pursuits, except, perhaps, video games. Without a guarantee of success, students either give up or become intimidating.

Twenge holds that the importance of the individual, for today’s students, supersedes all other concerns. Because of changing social norms, rules observed in polite society no longer apply. Members of what Twenge calls “Generation Me” do not respect other people’s comfort and are less likely than those in other generations to recognize authority. They thus have less esteem for their professors. They believe that their own perspectives are just as valid as those of any expert.

Perhaps academia is partly at fault. The recent practice of addressing faculty members by first name, for example, perpetuates the idea that the student and the professor are equals. In this respect, faculty members might have assisted in the erosion of the dignity and authority of the professor. Faculty members also erode their own position as classroom “experts” when they dress as casually as—or more casually than—their students. Is it any wonder that students feel entitled to argue with and denigrate their professors when such a sense of equality has been established?

What can be done in response? I suggest the following:

  1. Do not compromise on teaching standards as outlined in the syllabus. Uphold all the requirements. One wavering faculty member makes it difficult for the entire institution.
  2. Treat yourself and your colleagues with the respect experts deserve. Perhaps even communication on a first-name basis among professors should be put aside until the semester has ended. It doesn’t hurt to refer to one other as “Dr. Smith” or “Professor Jones.”
  3. Document every incident involving student misbehavior and report incidents to the department chair, the academic dean, and the dean of students.

Academic entitlement and bullying have no place in the development of future doctors, lawyers, pilots, engineers, educators, and technicians. As professors, we are accountable to the future.

Barbara Holdcroft is an adjunct faculty member in theology at Lees-McRae College and in psychology at Mayland Community College. She holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in both education and theology, and her research on moral development, the subject of her doctorate, attempts to blend those two academic disciplines.



This article speaks for many of us who are full time and contingent faculty in America. AAUP has talked about coporatization of education in many forums. Consumerim in education, with tenet that "customer (student) is always right", is by-product of such corporatization of education.

Going online (and some colleges are offering entire undergraduate degrees online), solves some of these problems, while exacerbates others. Grade inflation, lowered academic integrity are some of the problems made worst by online degrees. Problem of bullying and incivility is not entirely eliminated. That is because face to face communication always has a constraining affect, which is removed in online environment. Recently, I received a fairly insulting e-mail from an online student who had never asked for help either by e-mail or in class discussion forums. Such behavior can only be explained by the current gestalt in higher education: "Customer is always right". Student was emboldened enough to even copy the dean in the e-mail. He knew that he is a a customer and uncivil behavior by a customer is to be tolerated and dean should see to it that he is served despite the uncivil behvior.

When I read this article, I felt as though I had written it. It reflects my own teaching experiences which I find to be so similar to those described by the writer. I am one of those Faculty members who have left teaching for all the reasons given. The idea that students get angry because they have to work for a grade is totally befuddling to me. The disrespect and incivility directed at an Instructor due to the expectation that class participation is part of the learning experience is foreign in my background of education as a student. Some students actually feel that they are being "picked on" when called to respond to questions based on the class assighment. On one occasion, I asked students why is it that you don't study? The response from 2 " i am just too lazy."
I retired this school year, it's all too different.

Thank you for the brilliant article which convinces me to adhere to the principles I hold and not to waver in the face of all the incomprehensible attitudes of students which fortunately have been made more comprehensible to me through the content. This article has given me confidence to maintain the same ethical principles which were instilled in me by the teachers and professors who transformed my life, inspired my thinking, and helped me progress as a learner and human being. I thought I had to somehow adapt to this "Me" generation thinking, with the reasoning that ideologies change and I must exercise flexibility to motivate positive behavior and learning. However, through trial and error, I learned that it is never enough from their side and that, like the article claims, it is the true learners, the responsible citizens and insightful human beings whose performance is "devalued" and who are discouraged by the general classroom atmosphere. Thank you for making me aware of a suspicion founded upon experience, that the more you falter, the more an unacceptable ideology wins and becomes the norm, and the less inspiring the academic world becomes with all the negative implications this will have on the present and our future in every aspect of society. This came at just the right time for me.

great article, Barb, I know your life experience helped you focus on this, and it's about time!

Thanks Barb for this article, a agree with jim that the influence of your life experience helped You!

I just wanted to express my appreciation to those who took the time to comment. I have organized this article into a power point (for colleagues and staff), but have added some humor to this all-too-serious topic. Feel free to contact me at or

I think that it is ridiculous to assume that students are not the professors equals. As human and educators we are here to enhance life and educate students not to treat them as anything less. To say that students must respect you just because you went to school and are educated is absurd, treat your students with respect and maintain consistency in your policies and students can not be angered and will not be.

Students cannot be an equal in the classroom because the power dynamic is not equal. One person ultimately assigns a grade to the other. Additionally, the instructor has a great deal of expertise in the subject and must control the classroom. For these, and many other reasons, the educator should be respected. We are not in the classrooms to be friends with our students, but we can be friendly. It is a mistake to think students and professors are equal.

This reflects a complete lack of understanding of narcissistic entitlement. Just because you treat your students with respect, it does not mean they will feel respected. Narcissists feel disrespected very very easily. It is also not logical to suggest that students and professors are equals within the classroom context. That is similar to saying that Mayweather and I are equals in the boxing ring. Obviously he is the superior one within that context.

In my experience, academic bullying & Intimidation comes almost exclusively from feminist students & professors & is directed at male students, who are shouted at, condemned, graded unfairly, & prevented from participating in classroom discussions. When an inflexible dogma like feminism, which has a unilateral objective--the creation of a female version of white privilege--becomes so prevalent, then intolerance & bullying invariably result. A more balanced analysis would acknowledge that feminists are as guilty as male students, perhaps more so.

This article was very helpful. Thank you for sharing.

Your student entitlement section is bullshit. Is it really so much to expect a professor to be on time to class and a consistent grader? Because, in my experience, the professors who complain the most about students are those who give the least thought to how their class is run. And students know this. They know that when you don't give a shit about teaching them, they're going to have a harder time academically. They're going to struggle when they DO improve their performance but you don't recognize it because the grade you give depends on how YOU are feeling at the time. They're going to struggle when your lazy teaching has not prepared for the class yours is a prereq for. They're going to curse you when your class doesn't teach them the skills the professional world requires of them because you stubbornly teach from an academic standpoint and refuse to recognize that MOST of your students aren't going to become grad students. Meanwhile, said students are getting a worse education than the previous generation, with a harder job market post-graduation than you did. It's funny how the previous generation complains about this generation being "MEMEMEME" while completely shirking their own responsibilities for funding public education. Really shows you who are the narcissists.

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