Educational Benefits of Diversity

The AAUP's support for affirmative action stems from the well-documented educational benefits of racial diversity in higher education. Following are cites to some of the numerous studies and reports examining and supporting the benefits of racial diversity.

ACE - AAUP Report "Does Diversity Make a Difference? Three Research Studies on Diversity in College Classrooms." (pdf)

University of Michigan research links: The University of Michigan has collected numerous resources and research data on the benefits of diversity in higher education. For links to this research, visit <>

Other References:

Chang, M., Witt, D., Jones, J., and Hakuta, K. (Eds.). (1999). Compelling interest: Examining the evidence of racial dynamics in higher education. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

Holzer, H., & Neumark, D. (2000). Assessing affirmative action. Journal of Economics Literature, 38, 483-568.

Milem, J. F., & Hakuta, K. (2000). The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. In D. Wilds (Ed.), Minorities in higher education 1999-2000: Seventeenth annual status report. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 39-64.

Milem, J.F. (in press). The educational benefits of diversity: Evidence from multiple sectors. In M. Chang, D. Witt, J. Jones, & K. Hakuta (Eds.). Compelling interest: Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in higher education. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Terenzini, P.T., Cabrera, A.F., Colbeck, C.L., Bjorkland, S.A., and Parente, J.M. (2001). Racial and ethnic diversity in the classroom: Does it promote student learning? Journal of Higher Education, 72(5), 509-531.

Whitt, E. J., Edison, M. I., Pascarella, E. T., Terenzini, P. T., & Nora, A. (2001). Influences on students' openness to diversity and challenge in the second and third years of college. Journal of Higher Education, 72, 172-204.